1854 in History
January 1 Lincoln University, a black college, chartered (Oxford, Penn)
January 5 Steamship San Francisco wrecked - 300 die
January 9 Astor Library opens in New York City
January 13 Anthony Foss patents accordion
January 18 Filibuster William Walker proclaims Republic of Sonora in NW Mexico
January 25 Aleksandr Ostrovsky's "Bednost ne Porok," premieres in Moscow
January 30 1st election in Washington Territory; 1,682 votes cast
January 31 Dutch KNMI established (Royal Meteorological Institute)
February 2 Pope Pius IX encyclical "On persecution of Armenians"
February 4 Alvan Bovay proposes name "Republican Party," Ripon, Wisc
February 6 Composer R Schumann is saved from suicide attempt into the Rhine
February 11 Major streets lit by coal gas for 1st time
February 16 Franz Liszts symphony "Orpheus," premieres
February 17 British recognize independence of Orange Free State (South Africa)
February 22 1st meeting of Republican Party in Michigan
February 23 Great Britain and Orange Free state sign Convention of Bloemfontein
February 27 Composer Robert Schumann saved from suicide attempt in Rhine
February 28 Republican Party formally organized at Ripon, Wisconsin
March 1 SS City of Glasgow leaves Liverpool harbor and is never seen again
March 7 Charles Miller patents 1st U.S. sewing machine to stitch buttonholes
March 8 U.S. Commodore Matthew C. Perry's 2nd trip to Japan
March 17 1st park land purchased by a U.S. city, Worcester, Massachusetts
March 28 During the Crimean War, Britain and France declare war on Russia
March 31 Treaty of Kanagawa: Commodore Perry forces Japan to opens ports to U.S.
April 16 Franz Liszt's "Mazeppa," premieres
April 16 San Salvador destroyed by earthquake
April 16 Steamer "Long Beach" sinks off Long Beach NY, 311 die
April 24 Austria's Franz Joseph I marries Elisabeth A E "Sissi"
May 1 Amsterdam begins transferring drinking water out of the dunes
May 5 English pirate Plumridge robs along pro-English Finnish coast
May 24 Anthony Burns, slave, arrested by U.S. Deputy marshals in Boston
May 24 Lincoln University, Penn, 1st Black college in U.S. forms by Prebyts
May 27 Marine Telegraph from Ft. Point to San Francisco completed
May 30 Territories of Kansas and Nebraska created
June 10 Georg F B Reiman proposes that space is curved
June 23 Antwerp-Roosendaal railway goes into use
June 29 Gadsden Purchase (parts of Az, NM) from Mexico for $10 million
June 29 Netherlands allows corporal punishment
July 6 1st Republican state convention in Ripon, Wisconsin
July 13 U.S. forces shell and burn San Juan del Norte, Nicaragua
August 6 Congress passes Confiscation Act
August 8 Smith and Wesson patents metal bullet cartridges
August 9 Henry David Thoreau publishes "Walden"
August 24 National emigration convention meets in Cleveland
August 29 Self-governing windmill patented (Daniel Halladay)
August 30 John Fremont issues proclamation freeing slaves of Missouri rebels
September 4 English/French assault on Petropavlovsk Kamchatka
September 8 With a 3-2 count, Phillies Richie Ashburn fouls next 14, then walks
September 14 Allied armies, including those of Britain and France, land in Crimea
September 19 Henry Meyer patents sleeping rail car
September 20 Battle at Alma Krim: 1,000 British soldiers died
September 20 British and French defeat Russians at Alma, in Crimea
September 27 Steamship "Arctic" sinks with 300 people on board
October 4 Abraham Lincoln made his 1st political speech at Illinois State Fair
October 10 U.S. Assay Office in New York City, New York opens
October 12 Lincoln University founded as Ashmun Institute
October 23 The Times give precise British positions in Krim
October 25 Charge of Light Brigade (Battle of Balaklava, Crimean War), 409 die
October 25 Prince Menshikov of Krim occupies British base at Balaclava
November 2 Cobblestone paving of Washington St. between Dupont and Kearny starts
November 4 Lighthouse forms on Alcatraz Island
November 5 Crimean War: British and French defeat Russian force of 50,000
November 9 Franz Liszt's "Fest-Long," premieres
November 13 "New Era" sinks off New Jersey coast with loss of 300
November 28 Dutch army stops Chinese uprising in Borneo
December 5 Aaron Allen of Boston patents folding theater chair
December 8 Pope Pius IX proclaims Immaculate Conception, makes Mary, free of Original Sin
December 9 Lord Tennyson's poem, "Charge of the Light Brigade," published
December 15 1st street-cleaning machine in U.S. 1st used in Philadelphia
December 19 Allen Wilson of Connecticut patents sewing machine to sew curving seams
December 26 Wood-pulp paper 1st exhibited, Buffalo
December 30 Pennsylvania Rock Oil Co, 1st in U.S., incorporated in New York City