1863 in History
January 1 1st homestead under the Homestead Act claimed, near Beatrice, Nebr
January 1 Battle of Galveston, Texas-Confederates recapture the city
January 1 Battle of Helena, AK
January 1 Emancipation Proclamation issued by Abraham Lincoln
January 1 Franz Schuberts "Missa Solemnis," premieres in Leipzig
January 1 President Lincoln declares slavery in Confederate states unlawful
January 2 Battle of Murfreesboro (Stone's River) ends
January 4 4 wheeled roller skates patented by James Plimpton of NY
January 10 1st underground railway opens in London
January 10 General McClernand's Union troops surround Fort Hindman Ark
January 10 January-uprising begins in Poland
January 10 London's 1st subway opens
January 11 Naval engagement near Galveston between CSS Alabama and USS Hatteras
January 11 Union forces capture Arkansas Post, or Ft. Hindman, Arkansas
January 12 President Davis delivers his "State of Confederacy" address
January 13 Chenille manufacturing machine patented by William Canter, New York City
January 13 Thomas Crapper pioneers one-piece pedestal flushing toilet
January 14 Battle between gunboats at Bayou Teche Louisiana
January 15 1st U.S. newspaper printed on wood-pulp paper, Boston Morning Journal
January 17 Civil War skirmish near Newtown, Virginia
January 19 General Mieroslawski appointed dictator of Poland
January 21 City of Dublin leases part of Cattle Market for 100,000 years
January 22 Union General Burnside's "Mud March"
January 25 Battle of Kinston, NC
January 25 General Joseph Hooker replaces Burnside as head of Army of Potomac
January 26 54th Regiment (Black) infantry forms
January 26 War Department authorizes Mass governor to recruit black troops
January 29 Battle at Bear River, Washington: U.S. Army vs indians
January 31 1st black Civil War regiment, South Carolina Volunteers, mustered into U.S. army
February 2 Samuel Clemens becomes Mark Twain for 1st time
February 9 Fire extinguisher patented by Alanson Crane
February 10 1st U.S. fire extinguisher patent granted to Alanson Crane, Virginia
February 10 P. T. Barnum stages wedding of Tom Thumb and Mercy Lavinia Warren (New York City)
February 24 Arizona Territory created
February 24 Forrest's raid on Brentwood, Tennessee
February 25 Congress creates national banking system, comptroller of currency
February 26 Lincoln signs National Currency Act
February 28 Confederate raider "Nashville" sinks near Fort McAllister Georgia
March 2 Congress authorizes track width of 4'8" for Union Pacific Railroad
March 3 1st U.S. wartime military conscription bill enacted
March 3 Abraham Lincoln approves charter for National Academy of Sciences
March 3 Congress authorizes a U.S. mint at Carson City, Nevada
March 3 Federal ironclad ships bomb Fort McAllister Georgia
March 3 Free city delivery replaces zone postage; 449 letter carriers hired
March 3 Gold certificates (currency) authorized by Congress
March 3 Idaho Territory forms
March 3 Lincoln approves charter for National Academy of Sciences
March 4 Battle of Thompson's Station, Tennessee
March 4 Territory of Idaho established
March 17 Battle of Kelly's Ford, Virginia (211 casualities)
March 20 Battle of Pensacola Florida - evacuated by Federals
March 21 Naval Engagement at Havana Cuba-USS Henrick Hudson vs BR Wild Pigeon
March 25 1st Army Medal of Honor awarded
March 25 Skirmish at Brentwood Tennessee
March 26 Voters in West Virginia approve gradual emancipation of slaves
March 27 President Davis calls for this to be a day of fasting and prayer
March 30 Danish prince Wilhelm Georg of Sleeswok-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glucksburg chosen as king George of Greece
March 31 Battle of Grand Gulf MS and Dinwiddie Court House VA
April 1 1st wartime conscription law in U.S. goes into effect
April 2 Bread revolt in Richmond Virginia
April 7 Battle of Charleston, South Carolina, failed Federal fleet attack on Fort Sumter
April 10 Rebel General Earl Van Dorn attacks at Franklin, Tennessee
April 11 Battle of Suffolk, Virginia (Norfleet House)
April 13 Battle of Irish Bend, Louisiana (Ft. Bisland)
April 13 Hospital for Ruptured and Crippled in New York is 1st orthopedic hospital
April 14 William Bullock patents continuous-roll printing press
April 17 R Grierson's: La Grange, Tennessee to Baton Rouge, Louisiana
April 19 Union troops/fleet occupy For Huger, Virginia
April 21 Declaration of Baha'u'llah; Baha'i Feast of Ridvan (Jalal 13, 20)
April 24 Skirmish at Okolona/Birmingham, Mississippi (Grierson's Raid)
April 27 Battle of Streight's raid: Tuscumbia to Cedar Bluff, AL
May 1 Battle of Chancellorsville, Virginia (29,000 injured or died)
May 1 Battle of Port Gibson, Mississippi
May 1 Confederate "National Flag" replaces "Stars and Bars"
May 1 Confederate congress passed resolution to kill black soldiers
May 2 South defeats North in Battle of Chancellorsville, Virginia
May 2 Stonewall Jackson attacks Chancellorsville, wounded by his own men
May 3 Battle of Chancellorsville - Beaten Union army withdraws
May 3 Battle of Fredricksburg, Virginia (Marye's Heights)
May 3 Battle of Salem Church, Virginia
May 4 Battle of Chancellorsville - action at Salem Church
May 4 End of Chancellorsville - Beaten Union army withdraws
May 5 Battle of Tupelo, Mississippi
May 5 Joe Coburn KOs Mike McCoole for U.S. boxing title in 63rd round
May 8 Confederacion Granadina becomes Estados Unidos de Colombia
May 12 Battle of Raymond, Mississippi
May 14 Battle of Jackson, Mississippi
May 16 Battle of Champion's Hill, MS-bloodiest action of Vicksburg Campaign
May 17 Battle of Big Black River Bridge, Mississippi
May 18 Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi
May 19 Siege of Vicksburg, investment of city complete
May 21 Siege on Port Hudson, Louisiana begins
May 22 General Grant begins siege on Vicksburg
May 22 War Department establishes Bureau of Colored Troops
May 27 CSS Chattahoochie explodes on Chattahoochie River GA, 18 die
May 27 Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana
May 28 1st black regiment (54 Mass) leaves Boston to fight in Civil War
June 2 Harriet Tubman leads Union guerrillas into Maryland, freeing slaves
June 5 Battle of Franklin's Crossing, Virginia, Deep Run
June 5 CSS "Alabama" captures "Tailsman" in Mid Atlantic
June 6 Battle of Milliken's Bend, LA and Williamsport, MD
June 7 Battle of Milliken's Bend, Louisiana - Jefferson Davis' home burnt
June 7 Mexico City captured by French troops
June 9 Battle of Brandy Station, Virginia, Fleetwood, Beverly Ford
June 10 Battle of Brice's Crossroads, Miss; Forrest w/3500 defeats 8000 Feds
June 13 Battle of Winchester, Virginia
June 13 Samuel Butler publishes 1st part of "Erewhon," Christchurch, New Zealand
June 13 Skirmish at Berryville Virginia
June 14 Battle of 2nd Winchester, Virginia
June 15 2nd battle at Winchester Va, ends in Federal defeat; 1350 casualities
June 17 Battle at Middleburg, Virginia
June 17 Battle of Aldie, Confederates fail to drive back Union in Virginia
June 17 Naval Engagement at Warsaw Sound GA-USS Weehawken vs CSS Atlanta
June 17 Travelers Insurance Co of Hartford chartered, 1st accident insurer
June 18 After long neglect, Confederates hurriedly fortify Vicksburg
June 19 Battle at Middleburg Virginia, 100+ casualties
June 20 1st bank chartered in U.S., National Bank of Davenport, Iowa
June 20 Skirmish at Greencastle Pennsylvania
June 20 West Virginia admitted as 35th U.S. state
June 21 Battle at Upperville Virginia, 389 casualities
June 23 Tullahoma campaign, Tennessee
June 24 Planning an invasion of Pennsylvania, Lee's army crosses Potomac
June 25 U.S. General George Meade replaces General Hooker to be more aggressive
June 27 Skirmish at Fairfax (Courthouse) Virginia
June 29 Battle at Westminster Maryland: Federal assault
June 29 George A. Custer (23) appointed Union Brigadier-General
June 29 Lee orders his forces to concentrate near Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
June 29 Very 1st First National Bank opens in Davenport, Iowa
June 30 Battles in Hanover Pennsylvania: 80 casualties
June 30 Dutch colony Suriname counts population of 33,000 slaves
June 30 Skirmish at Sporting Hill, Pennsylvania
July 1 Battle at Baltimore: Crump's Crossroads Virginia
July 1 Battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania; Lee's northward advance halted
July 1 Free city delivery of mail begins in 49 U.S. cities; postage 3 cents per oz
July 1 Slavery abolished in Suriname and Netherlands Antilles
July 2 Battle of Gettysburg (2nd day)
July 3 Battle of Gettysburg Pennsylvania ends, major victory for North
July 4 Boise, Idaho founded (now capital of Idaho)
July 4 Failed Confederate assault on Helena Arkansas (640 casualties)
July 4 General Lee's army withdraws from Gettysburg
July 4 Skirmish at Smithburg, Tennessee
July 4 Vicksburg, Mississippi surrenders to Union forces
July 5 Battle of Jackson, Mississippi and Battle of Birdsong Ferry, Mississippi
July 6 Northern Territory passes from New South Wales to South Australia
July 7 1st military draft by U.S., exemptions cost $100
July 7 Orders barring Jews from serving under U.S. Grant are revoked
July 9 Union troops enter Port Hudson
July 11 Japanese battle cruiser shoots at Dutch warship Medusa, kills 4
July 13 Anti-draft mobs lynch blacks in New York City; about 1,000 die
July 13 Battle of Bayou La Fourche, Louisiana
July 14 Battle of Falling Waters, MD (Beaver Creek)
July 14 Jews of Holstein Germany granted equality
July 15 President Davis orders service duty for confederate army
July 16 Utrecht-Swells railway opens
July 17 Battle of Honey Springs - largest battle in Indian Territory
July 18 Battle of Fort Wagner, South Carolina - Second assault US1500 CS174
July 19 Battle of Buffington's Island (St. George Creek), Ohio
July 23 Alexandra Park opens in North London
July 24 Battle at Battle Mountain, Virginia
July 25 Skirmish at Barbee's Crossroads, Virginia
July 26 Battle of Salineville OH, John Hunt Morgan and 364 troops surrender
July 30 President Lincoln issues "eye-for-eye" order to shoot a rebel prisoner for every black prisoner shot
August 1 Battle of Little Rock AK and Start of Chattanooga campaign
August 1 Cavalry action near Brandy Station-End of Gettysburg Campaign
August 3 Governor Seymour asks Lincoln to suspend draft in New York
August 3 Saratoga Racetrack, New York, opens
August 11 Cambodia becomes French protectorate
August 12 1st cargo of lumber leaves Burrard Inlet (Vancouver, BC area)
August 15 Submarine "HL Hunley" arrives in Charleston on railroad cars
August 16 Chickamauga campaign GA
August 16 Emancipation Proclamation signed
August 17 Federal batteries and ships attacked Fort Sumter in SC
August 17 Skirmish at Calfkiller Creek (Sparta), Tennessee
August 21 Raid at Lawrence KS by William Quantrill
August 26 Battle of Rocky Gap WV (White Sulphur Springs)
September 1 6th Ohio Cavalry ambush at Barbees Crossroads Virginia
September 1 Federal troops reconquer Fort Smith Arkansas
September 1 RR and ferry connection between San Francisco and Oakland inaugurated
September 5 Bread revolt in Mobile Alabama
September 6 After 59 day siege, confederates evacuate Ft. Wagner, SC
September 6 Confederate troops vacate Fort Wagner South Carolina (1700 casualties)
September 7 Federal naval expedition arrives off Sabine Pass
September 8 Battle of Sabine Pass TX: 47 Texas volunteers repel Federal forces
September 8 Federal troops reconquer the Cumperland Gap, Tennessee
September 9 Battle of Cumberland Gap, TN
September 10 George Bizets opera "Les Pacheurs de Perles," premieres in Paris
September 17 Pope Pius IX encyclical On persecution in New Grenada
September 19 Battle of Chickamauga Georgia (near Chattanooga) begins; Union retreat
September 20 Civil War Battle of Chickamauga, near Chattanooga Tennessee, ends
September 21 Union forces retreat to Chattanooga after defeat at Chickamauga
September 23 Confederate siege of Chattanooga begins
September 27 Jo Shelby's cavalry in action at Moffat's Station, Arkansas
September 29 Opera "Pescatori di Perle" is produced (Paris)
October 1 5 Russian warships welcomed in New York City
October 1 Dutch Breda-Tilburg railway opens
October 3 Lincoln designates last Thursday in November as Thanksgiving Day
October 5 Confederate sub David damages Union ship Ironsides
October 6 Battle at Baxter Springs Kansas
October 6 Dr. Charles H Sheppard opens 1st public bath, in Brooklyn
October 9 Battle of Brady Station, Virginia (Culpeper Court House, Bristoe Station)
October 10 Skirmish at Blue Springs, Tennessee (166 casualties)
October 11 Skirmish at Rheatown/Henderson's Mill, Tennessee
October 13 Skirmish at Blountsville, Tennessee (50 casualties)
October 14 Battle at Bristoe Station Virginia (about 2000 casualties)
October 14 Skirmish at Catlett's Station, Virginia (Bristoe Campaign)
October 15 Cliff House opens in San Francisco (1st of many on site)
October 16 Grant is given command of Union forces in West
October 18 Battle of Charlestown, West Virginia
October 19 Battle of Buckland Mills, VA
October 26 Football Association forms in England, standardizing soccer
October 26 Soccer rules standardized; rugby starts as a separate game
October 26 Worldwide Red Cross organized in Geneva
October 27 Dutch railway to Harlingen opens
October 28 Battle at Wauhatchie Georgia: 865 killed or injured
October 29 International Comm of Red Cross forms (Nobel 1917, 1944, 1963)
November 1 Averell's Raid (on)to Lewisburg, West Virginia
November 1 Fortifications built on Angel Island (SF Bay) by troops
November 3 Battle of Grand Coteau, Louisiana
November 7 Battle of Rappahannock Station and Kelly's Ford, VA
November 14 Bedford Forrest is assigned to command of West Tennessee
November 14 Skirmish at Danville, Mississippi
November 16 Battle of Campbell's Station TN, 492 casualities
November 17 Lincoln begins 1st draft of his Gettysburg Address
November 19 Lincoln delivers his address in Gettysburg; "4 score and 7 years..."
November 23 Battle of Chattanooga and Orchard Knob, Tennessee begins
November 23 Patent granted for a process of making color photographs
November 24 Battle of Chattanooga, Columbia and Lookout Mountain begins in Tennessee
November 25 Battle of Missionary Ridge, Tennessee
November 27 Battle at Fort Esperanza Texas
November 27 Battle of Payne's Farm, VA
November 29 Battle of Ft. Sanders, Tennessee (Ft. Loudon), 8-900 casualities
November 30 Confederate troops vacate Fort Esperanza, Texas
December 3 Longstreet abandons his siege at Knoxville, TN
December 4 Storm flood ravages Netherlands coastal provinces
December 8 2,500 reported killed at Church of La Compana, Santiago Chile
December 8 Abraham Lincoln announces plan for Reconstruction of South
December 8 Jesuit church in Chile catches fire, 2,500 die in panic
December 8 President Lincoln offers amnesty for confederate deserters
December 14 Battle of Bean's Station-Confederacy repulses Union in Tennessee
December 15 Skirmish at Bean's Station, Tennessee (Knoxville Campaign)