1865 in History
January 3 Con Orem and Hugh O'Neill box 193 rounds before darkness ends match
January 11 Battle of Beverly, WV
January 12 Union fleet bombs Fort Fisher NC
January 15 Ft. Fisher, North Carolina falls to Union troops
January 16 Confederate Brigadier General John Pegram marries Hetty Cary
January 16 Drunken sailor attacks munitions at Ft. Fisher NC, 40 die
January 16 General Wm Sherman issues Field Order #15 (land for blacks)
January 16 SF Dramatic Chronicle started
January 18 Battle of Ft. Moultrie, SC
January 19 NV Suriname Bank established
January 19 Union occupies Fort Anderson, NC
January 25 CSS Shenandoah arrives in Melbourne, Australia
January 28 President Jefferson Davis names 3 peace commissioners
January 31 Congress passes 13th Amendment, abolishing slavery in America (121-24)
January 31 General Robert E Lee named Commander-in-Chief of Confederate Armies
February 1 13th amendment approved (National Freedom Day)
February 1 General Sherman's march through South Carolina begins
February 1 J. S. Rock, 1st black lawyer to practice in Supreme Court, admitted to bar
February 3 Hampton Roads Peace Conference, Lincoln and Stephens reach an impasse
February 4 Hawaiian Board of Education formed
February 4 Robert E. Lee is named commander-in-chief of Confederate Army
February 5 Battle of Hatcher's Run, Virginia (Armstrong's Mill, Dabney's Mill)
February 6 2nd day of battle at Dabney's Mills (Hatcher's Run)
February 6 Robert E. Lee appointed Confederate General in Chief
February 8 1st black major in U.S. Army, Martin Robinson Delany
February 12 Henry Highland Garnet, is 1st black to speak in U.S. House of Reps
February 17 Battle of Charleston South Carolina
February 17 Columbia South Carolina burns down during Civil War
February 18 Battle of Ft. Moultrie, South Carolina occupied by Federals
February 18 Evacuation of Charleston, South Carolina; Sherman's troops burn city
February 18 Union troops force Confederates to abandon Ft. Anderson, North Carolina
February 20 MIT forms 1st U.S. collegiate architectural school
February 22 Battle of Wilmington, North Carolina (Fort Anderson) occupied by Federals
February 22 Tennessee adopts a new constitution abolishing slavery
February 27 Civil War skirmish near Sturgeon, Missouri
March 2 British newspaper "Morning Chronicle" begins publishing
March 2 Freedman's Bureau founded for Black Education, 1865
March 2 General Early's army is defeated at Waynesborough
March 3 Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands established
March 3 Freedmen's Bureau is created to help destitute free blacks
March 4 Confederate congress approves final design of "official flag"
March 4 President Lincoln inaugurated for his 2nd term as president
March 6 Battle of Natural Bridge, Florida
March 6 President Lincolns 2nd Inaugural Ball
March 7 Battles round Kinston North Carolina
March 8 Battle of Kingston, North Carolina (Wilcox's ridge, Wise's Forks)
March 10 Battle of Monroe's Crossroads, North Carolina
March 11 General Sherman's Union forces occupies Fayetteville, North Carolina
March 12 Affair near Lone Jack, Missouri
March 13 U.S. Confederate Congress calls on black slaves for field service
March 16 Battle of Averasboro North Carolina (1,500 casualities)
March 18 Battle of Wilson's raid to Selma, Alabama
March 18 Congress of Confederate States of American adjourns for last time
March 19 Battle of Bentonville-Confederates retreat from Greenville NC
March 20 2nd day of Battle of Bentonville North Carolina
March 20 Michigan authorizes workers' cooperatives
March 21 Battle of Bentonville ends, last Confederate effort to stop Sherman
March 22 Raid at Wilson's: Chickaswas, Alabama to Macon, Georgia
March 23 General Sherman/Cox' troops reach Goldsboro North Carolina
March 25 Battle of Bluff Spring, Florida
March 25 Battle of Fort Stedman, Virginia - in front of Petersburg
March 25 Battle of Mobile, Alabama (Spanish Fort, Fort Morgan, Fort Blakely)
March 25 SS General Lyon at Cape Hatteras catches fire and sinks, killing 400
March 27 Siege of Spanish Fort, AL-captured by Federals
March 29 Battle of Quaker Road, VA
March 30 Battle at 5 Forks Virginia
March 31 Battle of Boydton, Virginia (White Oaks Roads, Dinwiddie C H)
March 31 General Pickette moves to 5 Forks, abandoning the defense of Peterburg
April 1 Battle of 5 Forks Virginia, signalling end of Lee's army
April 2 Battle of Ft. Blakely AL and Selma AL
April 2 Battle of Petersburg, Virginia (Ft. Gregg, Sutherland's Station)
April 2 CSA President Jefferson Davis flees Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia
April 3 Battle at Namozine Church, Virginia (Appomattox Campaign)
April 3 Union forces occupy Confederate capital of Richmond Virginia and Petersberg
April 4 Lee's army arrives at Amelia Courthouse
April 5 Battle at Amelia Springs/Jetersville Virginia (Appomattox Campaign)
April 6 Battle of Sayler's Creek, 1/3rd of Lee's army cut off
April 7 Battle of Farmville, Virginia
April 9 Federals capture Ft. Blakely, Alabama
April 9 Robert E. Lee and 26,765 troops, surrender to U.S. Grant at Appomattox
April 10 At Appomattox, General Lee issues General Order #9, his last
April 11 Battle of Mobile, Alabama - evacuated by Confederates
April 11 Lincoln urges a spirit of generous conciliation during reconstruction
April 13 Battle of Raleigh, North Carolina
April 13 Sherman's march through Georgia begins
April 14 Mobile, Alabama is captured
April 14 President Abraham Lincoln shot in Ford's Theater by John Wilkes Booth
April 15 Otto von Bismarck elevated to earl
April 16 Battle of Columbus and West Point, Georgia (Ft. Tyler)
April 17 Mary Surratt is arrested as a conspirator in Lincoln's assassination
April 18 Confederate General Johnson surrendered to General Sherman in North Carolina
April 20 Chicago's Crosby Opera House opens
April 21 Abraham Lincoln's funeral train leaves Washington
April 24 Fire alarm and police telegraph system put into operation in San Francisco
April 26 Battle of Durham Station, North Carolina (Greensboro)
April 26 Battle of Ft. Tobacco, Virginia
April 26 Confederate General J E Johnston surrenders Army of Tennessee, at Durham North Carolina
April 27 Cornell University in Ithaca,New York is chartered
April 27 Steamboat "Sultana" explodes in Mississippi River, kills up to 1,547. 1450 of 2000 paroled Union POWs on their way home are killed when river steamer "Sultana" blows up
April 28 Giacomo Meyerbeer's opera "L'Africaine," premieres in Paris
April 28 Opera "L'Africaine" is produced (Paris)
April 30 General Shermans "Haines's Bluff" at Snyder's Mill, Virginia
May 2 President Johnson offers $100,000 reward for capture of Jefferson Davis
May 4 Battle of Citronville, Alabama; Richard Taylor surrenders
May 4 Battle of Mobile, Alabama
May 5 1st U.S. train robbery (North Bend Ohio)
May 10 Jefferson Davis captured at Irwinsville, Georgia
May 10 Surrender of Sam Jones
May 12 Last land action of Civil war at Palmito Ranch, Texas
May 13 S Brownsville, Texas (Palmito Ranch) Final engagement of Civil War PVT John J Williams of 34th Indiana is last man killed
May 19 President Jefferson Davis is captured by Union Cavalry in Georgia
May 23 Flag flown at full staff over White House, 1st time since Lincoln shot
May 23 Grand Review begins in Washington D.C.
May 26 Battle of Galveston, Texas, surrender of Edmund Kirby Smith
June 2 At Galveston, Kirby-Smith surrenders Trans-Mississippi Dept
June 8 Tristanderl und Zusholde, premieres
June 9 Battle of Grand Gulf, Mississippi
June 10 Wagner's "Tristan und Isolde" 1st performance Munich Germany
June 13 President Johnson proclaims reconstruction confederate states
June 19 Siege of Richmond, Virginia
June 19 Union General Granger declares slaves are free in Texas
June 22 1st class cricket debut of Dr. W. G. Grace
June 23 At Ft. Towson, General Stand Watie surrenders last sizeable Confederate army
June 30 8 alleged conspirators in assassination of Lincoln are found guilty
July 2 William Booth founds Salvation Army (Army of the Salvation)
July 4 1st edition of "Alice in Wonderland" is published
July 5 Great Britain delegate's world 1st maximum speed laws
July 5 Secret Service began operating under the Treasury Department
July 13 Horace Greeley advises his readers to "Go west young man"
July 13 P. T. Barnum's museum burns down
July 14 1st ascent of Matterhorn
July 14 Whymper, Hudson, Croz, Douglas and Hadow 1st to climb Matterhorn
July 22 V E Walker takes 10-104 in an innings for Middlesex vs. Lancs
July 26 Patrick Francis Healy is 1st black awarded PhD (Louvain Belgium)
July 30 Pope Pius IX visits Suriname
August 2 Lewis Carroll publishes "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland"
August 2 Trans Atlantic Cable being laid by SS Great Eastern snaps and is lost
August 20 President Johnson proclaims an end to "insurrection" in Tx
September 3 Army commander in South Carolina orders Freedmen's Bureau to stop seizing land
September 19 Atlanta University forms
September 24 James Cooke walks tightrope from Cliff House to Seal Rocks, SF
October 8 Earthquake in Santa Cruz Mountains
October 9 1st U.S. underground pipeline for carrying oil is laid in Pennsylvania
October 10 John Hyatts patents billard ball
October 11 President Johnson paroles CSA Vice President Alexander Stephens
October 14 Cheyennes and Arapaho's sign "peaces treaty" then chased out Colorado
November 1 Zutphen-Fishing Dutch railway opens
November 6 Maastricht-Venlo railway in Netherlands opens
November 7 London Gazette, oldest surviving journal, is founded
November 11 Mary Edward Walker, 1st Army female surgeon, awarded Medal of Honor
November 11 Thomas Robertsons "Society," premieres in London
November 13 1st U.S. gold certificates issued
November 13 PT Barnum's New American museum opens in Bridgeport
November 13 U.S. issues 1st gold certificates
November 18 Mark Twain publishes "Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County"
November 20 Howard University forms in Washington D.C.
November 21 Shaw University forms in Raleigh NC
November 26 "Alice in Wonderland" by Lewis Carroll published in US
December 6 13th Amendment is ratified, abolishing slavery
December 17 Franz Schubert's "Unvolendete" Symphony," premieres
December 18 13th Amendment ratified, slavery abolished
December 18 1st U.S. cattle importation law passed
December 20 De Clear-Alkmaar railway opens
December 24 Several Confederate veterans form Ku Klux Klan in Pulaski, Tn
December 26 James H Mason (Mass) patents 1st U.S. coffee percolator