1866 in History
January 9 Fisk University establishes
January 11 Steamship London sinks in storm off Land's End England, kills 220
January 15 Bedrich Smetana's opera "Branibori vs. Cechach," premieres in Prague
January 20 Prim's Insurrection in Spain ends
February 10 Dutch government Frans van der Putte forms
February 13 Jesse James holds up his 1st bank, Liberty, Missouri ($15,000)
February 21 Lucy B Hobbs (Taylor) becomes 1st U.S. woman to earn a DDS degree
February 26 New York Legislature forms New York City Metropolitan Board of Health
March 1 Paraguayan canoes sink 2 Brazilian ironclads on Rio Parana
March 2 1st U.S. company to make sewing needles by machine incorporated, Connecticut
March 19 Immigrant ship Monarch of the Seas sinks in Liverpool; 738 die
March 21 Congress authorizes national soldiers' homes
March 27 Andrew Rankin patents the urinal
March 27 President Johnson vetoes civil rights bill; it later becomes 14th amendment
March 28 1st ambulance goes into service
March 30 Bedrich Smetana's "Verkaufte Braut" (Sold Bride), premieres
April 2 President Johnson ends war in Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, Louisiana, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee and Virginia
April 9 Civil Rights Bill passes over President Andrew Johnson's veto
April 10 American Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) forms
April 16 Karakozov attempts to assassinate Tsar Alexander II of Russia
April 16 Nitroglycerine at Wells Fargo and Co office explodes
May 1 American Equal Rights Association forms
May 4 Woodward's Gardens opens to public
May 7 German premier Otto von Bismarck seriously wounded in assassin attempt
May 8 Australian Rules Football is created
May 16 Charles Elmer Hires invents root beer
May 16 Congress authorizes nickel 5 cents piece (replaces silver half-dime)
May 16 U.S. Treasury Department authorizes nickel
May 18 French Government of De Putte resigns
May 21 1st-class debut of G F Grace aged 15 years 159 days
May 24 Berkeley, California named (for George Berkeley, Bishop of Cloyne)
May 28 Dutch government of Zuylen van Nijevelt/Heemskerk forms
May 30 Opera "Die Verkaufte Braut" premieres (Prague)
June 1 General Dutch Typographer Union forms
June 1 Renegade Irish Fenians invade Ft. Erie, Ontario from U.S.
June 2 Renegade Irish Fenians surrender to U.S. forces
June 7 Irish Fenians raid Pigeon Hill, Quebec
June 13 House passes 14th Amendment (Civil rights for blacks)
June 15 Prussia attacks Austria
June 20 Italy declares war on Austria
June 24 2nd Battle at Custozza: Prussian-Austria beats Italian army
July 4 Firecracker thrown in wood starts fire destroying of Portland, Me
July 10 Indelible pencil patents by Edson P Clark, Northampton, Mass
July 17 Italian fleet under Admiral Persano capture Austrian Fort Lissa
July 19 Tennessee is 1st to ratify 14th Amendment, guaranteeing civil rights
July 20 Sea battle of Lissa-Austria vs Italy
July 21 Cholera-epidemic kills hundreds in London
July 23 Cincinnati Baseball club (Red Stockings) forms
July 24 Tennessee becomes 1st Confederate state readmitted to Union
July 25 25th Postmaster General: Alexander W Randall of Wis takes office
July 25 David Faragut appointed as 1st Admiral of U.S. Navy
July 25 U.S. Grant named 1st general of Army
July 26 Canoe Club opens in England
July 27 Atlantic telegraph cable successfully laid (1,686 miles long)
July 28 Metric system becomes a legal measurement system in U.S.
July 30 Race riot in New Orleans
August 10 Transatlantic cable laid-President Buchanan spoke to Queen Victoria
August 17 Bathe and Prussia signs peace treaty
August 20 President Andrew Johnson formally declares Civil War over
August 23 Treaty of Prague ends Austro-Prussian war
September 1 Last Navaho chief Manuelito, turns self in at Fort Wingate
September 4 1st Hawaiian daily newspaper published
September 6 Frederick Douglass is 1st U.S. black delegate to a national convention
October 1 Dutch Eindhoven-Venlo railway opens
October 2 J Osterhoudt patents tin can with key opener
October 6 1st train robbery in U.S. (Reno Brothers take $13,000)
October 15 Great fire in Quebec destroys 2,500 houses
October 30 Jesse James gang robs bank in Lexington Missouri ($2000)
November 1 1st Civil Rights Bill passes
November 4 Kingdom of Italy annexes Venetia
November 10 Gold coins from the Sydney Mint become legal tender in Canada
November 17 Opera "Mignon" is produced (Paris)
November 20 1st national convention of Grand Army of Republic (veterans' org)
November 20 Howard University founded (Wash, DC)
November 20 Pierre Lalemont patents rotary crank bicycle
November 30 Work begins on 1st U.S. underwater highway tunnel, Chicago
December 3 Paid fire department replaces volunteer companies
December 6 Chicago water supply tunnel 3,227 m into Lake Michigan completed
December 11 1st yacht race across Atlantic Ocean
December 21 Cheyennes, Arapho's, Sioux, Fetterman Massacre