European Events in History

2015 Event - During his visit to Bolivia, Pope Francis asks for forgiveness for the Catholic Church for its offenses against the indigenous population of the American continent during the conquest by European powers

2015 Event - Greek voters reject austerity terms of the bailout proposed by the E.U., the I.M.F. and the European Central Bank, leaving open the possibility of the expulsion of Greece from the eurozone

2015 Event - Negotiations break down between Greece's leftist Syriza government and the European Union regarding issuance of additional bailout funding; Greece has a deadline of tomorrow to repay USD $336 million of its existing debt

2015 Event - A shipwreck that may have drowned up to 900 North African migrants traveling to Europe has prompted the European Union to meet in order to develop a plan to fund and organize rescues while reducing human trafficking incidents

2015 Event - The European Central Bank will initiate a quantitative easing program that will involve printing euros in order to purchase government-issued debt instruments; the program will enhance existing measures to improve the economy within the eurozone

2014 Event - Former Polish Prime Minister Donald Tusk replaces Herman Van Rompuy as president of the European Council

2014 Event - The European Space Agency makes history by landing a probe named Philae on the surface of a comet; scientists report that the probe anchors did not fire and that the vessel appears to have made two landings

2014 Event - A series of hidden online markets are taken down after raids by U.S. and European authorities and the arrest of 17 people; the markets were used to secretly trade illegal goods

2014 Event - The European Union will assist Iraq in fighting Islamic State militants; European nations and the Union are sending arms in addition to humanitarian aid

2014 Event - Russia counters sanctions by the U.S. and the European Union by banning all imports of dairy, fish, meat, fruit and vegetables; Ukrainian flights have also been prohibited from Russian air space

2014 Event - The U.S. and the European Union impose additional sanctions on Russia, focusing on restrictions related to the nation's military, energy, and financial sectors

2014 Event - The European Banking Authority cautions banks against accepting or trading in virtual currencies such as Bitcoin until such transactions can be regulated by the European Commission; regulators cited the risk of fraud and money laundering

2014 Event - Former Luxembourg Prime Minister Jean-Claude Juncker is nominated for the position of President of the European Commission in a 26-2 vote over U.K. Prime Minister David Cameron, who strongly objected to the decision

2014 Event - Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine enter into free-trade pacts with the European Union, a decision counter to that of Kazakhstan and Belarus, who partnered with Russia in creation of the Eurasian Union

2014 Event - The European Commission (EC) is examining the tax status of Fiat in Luxembourg; Starbucks in the Netherlands; and Apple in Ireland to identify potential unfair tax advantages; the companies say they are in compliance with financial laws

2014 Event - The World Trade Organization upheld its November decision to continue banning European imports of seal products on the grounds of concern for the suffering of the hunted animals; the WTO is also reexamining its exception for indigenous hunters

2014 Event - The Chinese and Russian state energy companies, Gazprom and CPNC, respectively, have entered a deal for Russia to supply China with natural gas; the deal provides a market for Russian gas as European countries seek to reduce their dependence due to Russia's actions

2014 Event - The United Nations and the European Union have sent workers, equipment and supplies to Serbia and Bosnia in the wake of massive floods that have resulted in at least 36 deaths and a large number homeless after destruction of homes and farms

2014 Event - 21st Century Fox, Inc. is seeking to sell its European pay TV assets to its BSkyB unit; this will enhance BSkyB's standing as a pay TV company while divesting Fox of its non-core business; such a deal must still receive regulatory approval

2014 Event - The European Central Bank announces its readiness to ensure that interest rates will remain steady or decrease as inflation rises

2014 Event - Andrus Ansip resigns as Prime Minister of Estonia; Ansip presided over the entry of Estonia into the eurozone and has served the longest to date among the prime ministers of the European Union

2014 Event - Chinese automaker Dongfeng and the French government have each invested in PSA Peugeot Citroen, which ranked as the European car company with the lowest sales of new vehicles last year

2014 Event - After restricting its ties with Cuba since 1996, the European Union agrees to launch negotiations; the talks aim to increase the dialogue on human rights and increase trade and investment between Cuba and the EU

2014 Event - Switzerland votes to put a quota on the number of immigrants to the country from the European Union; 50.4% of voters approved of the measure

2014 Event - Water vapor on the minor planet Ceres, the largest asteroid and the only dwarf planet in the inner Solar System, is detected by European Space Agency researchers

2013 Event - Six banks are fined $2.3 billion after the European Commission determines they rigged interest rates

2013 Event - Despite concerns that Greece's government is reforming too slowly, European Commission, the European Central Bank and the IMF gives Greece an additional 6.2 billion euros

2013 Event - A joint report on Spain's banking system is released by the European Central Bank and the European Commission; the report indicates their system is solvent, with no further program disbursements are needed

2013 Event - The oldest European remains of a white man are discovered in Australia; the Manning River Skull may belong to a man born in 1650, predating the country's history that Captain James Cook was the first to land on Australia's east coast in 1770

2013 Event - Sigmundur Davio Gunnlaugsson, the Prime Minister elect of Iceland, announces he will indefinitely extend January's freeze on European Union membership talks

2013 Event - The first-ever European MP's of Croatia are determined in an election held in anticipation of Croatia gaining formal entry into the European Union

2013 Event - For the first time in its history, the European Parliament rejects a European Union budget

2013 Event - Plans for Euro 2020 are announced by the UEFA; the football championship is to be held in 13 cities in 13 different European countries

2013 Event - European Bioinformatics Institute scientists have successfully stored audio and text on fragments of DNA, and retrieved them with 99.99% accuracy - the first time in history DNA has been used for data storage

2013 Event - The European Commissioner for Digital Agenda, Neelie Kroes, reveals that the EU is planning regulatory action to facilitate consolidation of the telecommunications market across national borders

2012 Event - European Union Finance Ministers agree to give the European Central BAnk new powers to supervise euro zone banks

2012 Event - In Oslo, Norway, leaders of the European Union accept the 2012 Nobel Peace Prize

2012 Event - Several European countries protest against unemployment and austerity measures; Spain and Portugal hold the largest protests, with Greece, Italy and Belgium holding smaller ones

2012 Event - The European Physical Society's annual Edison Volta Prize is awarded to CERN Director General, Rolf-Dieter Heuer

2012 Event - European Central Bank president, Mario Draghi, confirms the design overhaul of euro banknotes, beginning with the 5 euro note

2012 Event - Turin, Italy, is selected as the European Capital of Sport for 2015

2012 Event - The 2012 Nobel Peace Prize is awarded to the European Union for 'over six decades (having) contributed to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy and human rights in Europe'

2012 Event - A report from the European Commission on the need for increased safety at Europe's 134 power station nuclear reactors will cost 10 to 25 billion euros

2012 Event - Moody's credit rating agency lowers its outlook on the European Union's AAA long-term bond rating from stable to negative

2012 Event - News that European Union members agree on a deal to help some struggling Eurozone members causes world stock markets to soar

2012 Event - Construction of The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), the world's biggest optical telescope is approved

2012 Event - In recognition of democratic reforms, the European Union opens an office in Burma

2012 Event - Progress is made on the U.K. and European Union's tallest building when the spire of the Shard London Bridge is put in place

2012 Event - The credit ratings of European Union members including Italy, Malta, Portugal, Slovakia and Spain are downgraded by Moody's Investors Service

2012 Event - Responding to Iran's nuclear program, more sanctions are imposed upon Iran's banking and oil industries by the European Union

2011 Event - After negotiations in Brussels, David Cameron, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, rejects the invitation to join a European Union financial crisis accord

2011 Event - The European Space Agency makes contact with the Fobos-Grunt probe 48 hours after the spacecraft's window for launch to Mars closes

2011 Event - An emergency meeting to discuss the European sovereign debt crisis is held by leaders of the European Union

2011 Event - The European Financial Stability Facility is approved by the German Bundestag

2011 Event - The ongoing sovereign debt crisis in Europe causes European and Asian stock markets to open lower

2011 Event - Concerns about the European economy are heightened as Germany reports second quarter growth of only 0.1%

2011 Event - In Libya's capitol of Tripoli, Muammar Gaddafi calls on NATO to stop its bombing campaign or else European homes offices and families will be targeted

2011 Event - Investigations by the ECDC and the European Food Safety Authority implicate fenugreek seeds imported from Egypt in the deadly E. coli outbreaks

2011 Event - The European Central BAnk appoints Italy's Mario Draghi as its new President, set to replace Jean-Claude Trichet on November 1

2011 Event - In Greece, Police fire tear gas on protesters angry over cuts their government made in co-operation with the European Union and the International Monetary Fund

2011 Event - Malta becomes the last country in the European Union to legalize divorce

2011 Event - Walid al-Muallem, foreign minister of Syria, denounces the European Union for the travel bans and asset freezes it has imposed on Syria

2011 Event - The European Union approves a $110.8 billion (78 billion euro) bailout package for Portugal

2011 Event - Hungary takes over the position of the presidency of the European Union

2010 Event - Ireland presents its 15 billion euro austerity package to secure a financial bailout from European Union and the International Monetary Fund

2010 Event - The European Parliament awards Cuban dissident Guillermo Farinas the Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought

2010 Event - The U.K. will increase aid to poor nations, including a 40% increase in Afghanistan, while reducing aid to 'powerhouses' like Russia, China and other eastern European countries

2010 Event - The European Union announces that on January 1, 2011, it will make Estonia the seventeenth member of the euro

2010 Event - The European Union and International Monetary Fund present Greece with 120 billion Euro bailout package to help rid them of their sovereign debt

2010 Event - Alphalara itadori, a Japanese insect that combats invasive Japanese knotweed, is the first biocontrol agent approved by the European Union

2010 Event - 35 suspected pirates off the coast of Somalia are captured by the French Navy, the European Union's most successful mission

2010 Event - Germany and the European Union deny planning a 20 - 25 billion euro financial aid plan for Greece

2010 Event - A European Union summit discusses the possibility of bailing out Greece's economy

2009 Event - European astronomers discover 32 extrasolar planets, or exoplanets - planets that orbit a star other than the Sun

2009 Event - The parliament of Iceland votes to pursue joining the European Union

2009 Event - Sweden takes over the presidency of the European Union

2007 Event - Bulgaria joins the European Union

2007 Event - Romania joins the European Union

1996 Death - Alain Poher, French President of European Parliament (1966-69), dies

1996 Event - Ireland beats Netherlands in 1st European Championship Final

1995 Event - Irina Privalova runs indoor woman's European record 200m (22.10 sec)

1995 Event - Linford Christie runs European record 60m indoor (6.47 sec)

1995 Event - Dieter Baumann runs European record 3k indoor (7:37.51)

1995 Event - Sandra Volker swims European record 50m backstroke (27.67 sec)

1995 Event - Sandra Volker swims female European record 50m backstroke: 27.77

1995 Event - Sandra Volker swims female European record 50m backstroke (27.77)

1995 Event - Austria, Finland and Sweden act to join European Union

1994 Event - European Campaign against Racism "All different, All equal" begins

1994 Event - Norway votes against joining European Union

1994 Event - Sweden agrees to join European Union

1994 Event - European Campaign against Racism confers in Austria

1994 Event - Irina Privalova runs 100m European Record (10.77)

1994 Event - Biggest European clock ever (9100 kg/(237) 2.5 m) at Aarle-Rixtel

1993 Event - 12 member European Economic Community sets up vast free trade zone

1992 Event - Denmark upsets German 2-0, to win European Soccer championship

1991 Event - Maastricht Treaty signed to create a European Community

1990 Event - Gelindo Bordin sets European marathon record (2:14:02)

1990 Event - European community proposes a boycott of Iraq

1990 Event - European court rules pension rights for both men and women

1990 Death - Alice Sapritch, actress (European Vacation), dies

1989 Event - 12 European nations agree to ban chlorofluorocarbon production by 2000

1988 Event - Netherlands soccer team wins European Cup (2-0 against U.S.S.R.)

1988 Event - European Community plans removal of inner boundaries on Jan 1, 1992

1987 Event - Turkey asks to join European market

1986 Event - European Space Agency's Giotto flies by Halley's Comet (605 km)

1986 Event - European Economic Community sign "Special Act" for Europe free trade

1986 Event - Hein Vergeer becomes European skating champ

1986 Event - Spain and Portugal are 11th and 12th to join European Economic Community

1985 Event - European Space Agency launches Giotto (Halley's Comet Flyby)

1984 Event - France wins soccer's European Cup

1984 Event - Hilbert van de Thumb becomes European all-round skates

1983 Event - Rudi Koopmans retains European middleweight title

1983 Event - European Space Agency launches European Comm Satellite 1, Oscar 10

1983 Event - Marlies Gohr runs female European record 100m (10.81)

1983 Event - Hilbert van Thumb becomes European skating champ

1982 Event - Finland, Italy, Germany, Austria and France form American European Football Federation (AEFF)

1982 Event - Piet Dankert elected chairman of European Parliament

1981 Event - European Space Agency's Ariane carries 2 satellites into orbit

1981 Event - Greece is 10th country to join European Economic Community

1980 Event - West German wins European soccer title (2-1 against Belgium)

1980 Event - Led Zeppelin begins their last European tour

1979 Event - Piet Dankert appointed as chairman of European Parliament

1979 Event - Nancy Lopez wins LPGA Colgate European Golf Open

1979 Event - Simone Veil becomes chairman of European Parliament

1979 Event - European Market accepts Greece as member

1979 Event - European Monetary System is established, ECU created

1978 Event - EG decides establishes EMS, European Monetary System

1978 Event - Leonid Mossejev becomes European marathon champ (2:11:57.5)

1978 Event - European market and China signs trade agreement

1977 Event - European weather satellite Meteosat 1 launched from Cape Canaveral

1977 Event - Judy Rankin wins LPGA Colgate European Women's Golf Open

1977 Event - Final European scheduled run of Orient Express (94 years)

1976 Event - Czechoslovakia becomes European soccer champ

1976 Event - Inge Helten runs female European record 100m (11.04)

1976 Event - Ceuta and Melilla (Spanish Morocco) are last European African possession

1976 Event - Hermes rocket launched by European Space Agency

1975 Event - Donna Caponi Young wins LPGA Colgate European Ladies Golf Open

1975 Event - British population agrees to European Common Market membership

1975 Event - European Space Agency, ESA, forms

1975 Event - Israel signs an agreement with European Economic Market

1974 Event - European Economic Community calls for a European Parliament

1973 Event - Johan Cruyff chosen European soccer Player of year

1972 Event - Danish population votes for European Common Market membership

1972 Event - Norway rejects membership in European Common Market

1972 Event - Renate Stecher runs 100m European female record (11.07 sec)

1972 Event - S Mansholt succeeds Malfatti as chairman of European Committee

1972 Event - Sicco Mansholt becomes chairman of European Committee

1972 Event - British Parliament votes to join European Common Market

1972 Event - Ard Schenk becomes European all-round skating champ

1972 Event - Atje Keulen-Deelstra becomes European all-round lady skating champ

1971 Event - European council accepts Mansholt plan laying off 5 million farmers

1970 Birthday - Tina Fischer, Bad Nauheim Germany, golfer, European Amat champ 1994

1969 Event - Ron Hill wins European marathon (2:16:47.8)

1969 Birthday - Arnaud Boetsch, born in Meulam, France, tennis star, 1985 European Junior

1968 Event - 1st European lung transplant

1968 Death - Jan Johansson, composer, pianist, infused traditional European folks tunes with jazz, avant garde style, dies at 37 in a car crash in Jonkoping, Sweden

1968 Event - 1st European satellite launched, Esro 1, at Cape Kennedy

1968 Event - European Space Research Org launches 1st satellite

1968 Event - 2-tiered gold price negotiated in Washington D.C. by U.S. and 6 European nations

1968 Birthday - Kent Carlsson, Sweden, born in Eskilstuna, Sweden, professional tennis player, won nine career titles, three-time European Champion

1967 Event - Norway requests European Common Market membership

1967 Event - Kees Verkerk becomes European skating champ

1966 Event - European DX Council forms in Copenhagen, shortwave listeners

1966 Birthday - Jose Maria Olazabal, born in Fuenterrabia, Gipuzkoa, Basque country, Spain, professional golfer, 6 PGA Tour wins, 23 European Tour wins, 2 Japan Golf Tour wins

1965 Event - Belgium Victor Leemans elected chairman of European Parliament

1965 Birthday - Andrew Jameson, born in Crosby, England, competitive swimmer, sports commentator for the BBC, won gold medal for 100m butterfly in 1987 European Championships

1965 Death - Richard P Blackmur, U.S., critic/publisher (Good European), dies at 61

1964 Event - ESRO established, European Space Research Organization

1964 Event - European Parliament accept Mansholt Plan

1963 Death - Robert Schuman, French premier/chair (European Parliament), dies at 77

1963 Birthday - Paul Way, born in Kingsbury, Middlesex, British golfer, won Brabazon Trophy, 1981, turned pro in 1982, won KLM Dutch Open while on the European Tour, second youngest Ryder Cup player in 1983, and 1985, finished in the top 100 in 1993, on the Order of Merit, after 1997, his participation in tournament golf waned

1962 Event - Greece enters European Common Market

1962 Event - Gerda Kroon runs European record 800 m in 2:02.8

1961 Birthday - Frank Bruno, British boxer, European champ

1961 Birthday - Christine Bridged, Australian European class yachter 1996 Olympics

1961 Event - England applies for membership in European Common Market

1960 Birthday - Michael Whitaker, born in England, equestrian rider, showjumper, award-winner, won team Silver medal in 1984 Olympic Games, team Gold medal in 1985 European Championships

1960 Event - European Free Trade Association forms in Stockholm

1959 Birthday - Dale Reid, born in Ladybank Scotland, LPGA golfer, European Solheim Cup team

1958 Birthday - Ian Woosnam, born in Oswestry, England, nicknamed 'Woosie', 'Wee Welshman', 'Woosers', Welsh, professional golfer, played first European Tour, 1979, won Swiss Open, 1982, number one in Official World Golf Rankings in 1991, awarded O.B.E. 2007 New Years Honors List

1958 Event - European Economic Community, known as the Common Market, starts operation

1957 Birthday - Alan Donnelly, born in England, politician, Labor Party, leader, European Parliamentary Labor Party, 1998 - 2005, founded, serves, as executive chairman of public affairs company, Sovereign Strategy, represents President of Federation Internationale de l'Automobile, at Grand Prix

1957 Event - Treaty of Rome establishes European Economic Community, known as the Common Market

1955 Birthday - Christine Oddy, British member European parliament

1955 Birthday - John Stevens, member of European Parliament, founder of the Pro-Euro Conservative party, known for his pro-Euro policy stance

1954 Birthday - Beverly D'Angelo, Columbus Ohio, actress, Vacation, European Vacation

1954 Birthday - Aleksander Kwasniewski, born in Bialogard, Poland, served as President of Poland 1995 - 2005, post-communist socialist politician, independent party, Chairman European Council on Tolerance and Reconciliation 2008

1954 Birthday - Anne Mcintosh, British member European parliament

1954 Event - European Convention on Human Rights goes into effect

1953 Birthday - Guy Verhofstadt, born in Dendermonde, Belgium, politician, liberal, 47th Prime Minister of Belgium 1999 - 2008, member, European Parliament

1952 Event - European Parliament forms in Strasbourg

1952 Event - European Defense Community forms

1952 Event - Karel Sys wins European heavyweight boxing title

1951 Event - France, West Germany and Benelux form European Steel and Coal Community

1951 Birthday - Phil Neal, born in Irchester, Northamptonshire, professional soccer player, manger, right fullback, appeared in the first five of Liverpool's European Cup finals

1950 Event - European Payment Union forms in Paris

1950 Birthday - Ria Oomen-Ruijten, born in Echt, the Netherlands, politician, member of the European Parliament, member of the Christian Democratic Appeal

1950 Event - French Foreign Minister Robert Schuman calls for European community EGKS

1950 Birthday - Joe Bugner, Hungarian/British/Australian boxer, European Champ 1971

1950 Birthday - Glyn Ford, born in Gloucester, England, politician, author, Labor Party, member of Gibraltar Socialist Labor Party, Member of European Parliament for South West England, expert on Asia, wrote, 'North Korea on the Brink: Struggle for Survival'

1948 Event - Organization for European Economic Cooperation (EEC) forms in Paris

1948 Event - Harry Truman signs Marshall Plan ($5B aid to 16 European countries)

1947 Birthday - Lyndon Harrison, born in Britain, Baron Harrison, life peer, House of Lords, Member of the European Parliament 1989 - 1999

1947 Event - General Eisenhower opens drive to raise $170M in aid for European Jews

1946 Birthday - Andre Bolhuis, hockey player, World Cup 1973, European Cup 1978

1945 Birthday - Ian White, born in South Bristol, United Kingdom, studied law, Member of the European Parliament in Wandsdyke

1944 Event - European Advisory Commission decides to divide Germany

1943 Birthday - Win Griffiths, born in Wales, born Winston James Griffiths, politician, Labor Party, served as Member of Parliament for Bridgend, member of the European Parliament, Chairman of Bro Margannwg NHS Trust

1942 Event - 1st European bombing run undertaken by U.S. forces

1941 Event - European reservists on Java mobilizes

1940 Event - Amsterdam time becomes MET (Middle European Time)

1939 Birthday - Leon Britain, vice president, Commission of European Communities

1939 Birthday - Hugh Dykes, born in England, served as Conservative Member of Parliament for Harrow East, member of the European Parliament, Vice President of the British-German Association

1939 Event - Hitler calls for extermination of European Jews

1939 Event - Hitler proclaims to German parliament to exterminate all European Jews

1938 Event - Vainio Muinonen wins 2nd European marathoner (2:37:28.8)

1937 Birthday - Jacques Santer, President, European Commission

1936 Birthday - Manfred Schoof, born in Madgeburg, Germany, composer, founder, European free jazz, professor in Cologne, interpreter of works by Bernd Alouis Zimmermann

1935 Birthday - Arvo Part, born in Paide, Estonia, classical composer, celebrated for minimalist style, influenced by European jazz, Shostakovich, Prokofiev, Bartok

1935 Birthday - Lord Grenfell, head of External affairs European office, world bank

1934 Event - Armas Toivonen becomes 1st European marathoner (2:52:29.0)

1933 Birthday - Peter Post, Dutch bicyclist, 8x European Champion at Derny-drive

1931 Birthday - Jan Johansson, born in Soderhamn, Sweden, composer, pianist, infused traditional European folks tunes with jazz, avant garde style

1930 Birthday - Ken Coates, born in Britain, politician, Labor Party, Member, European Parliament 1989 - 1999, chair, Bertrand Russell Peace Foundation

1929 Birthday - Amedee Turner, born in England, Amedee Edward Turner, politician, barrister, Conservative Party, Member of the European Parliament, patent lawyer

1927 Birthday - Simone Veil, President European parliament, France

1925 Birthday - Jacques Delors, French economist/chairman European Committee, 1985-95

1925 Birthday - Cees de Ruyter, European champion billiards player

1925 Birthday - Fred Catherwood, born in Londonderry, Northern Ireland, politician, writer, Conservative member of the European Parliament, president of Evangelical Alliance

1921 Birthday - Bruce Woodcock, born in England, boxer, British and Empire heavyweight champion 1945 - 1950, European heavyweight champion 1946 - 1949, events attracted sellout crowds

1912 Birthday - Rene Gabriels, Belgian billiard pro, 7 World/9 European championships

1911 Event - 1st European airpost (Hendon to Windsor, England)

1908 Event - French pilot Henry Farman is 1st European to fly roundtrip

1907 Birthday - Bep van Klaveren, European Boxing Champ, Gold Medal 1928 Olympics

1907 Event - Finland is 1st European country to give women the right to vote

1904 Birthday - Richard P Blackmur, Massachusetts, critic/poet, Good European

1902 Birthday - Jean Rey, Belgium, President of European Commission, 1967-70

1881 Event - 122 degrees F (50 degrees C), Seville, Spain (European record)

1875 Event - Verney Cameron is 1st European to cross equitorial Africa

1840 Birthday - Abraham Goldfaden, Eastern European Yiddish dramatist

1798 Death - Giacomo Casanova, writer, author, adventurer, book, 'Histoire de ma vie', or, 'History of My Life', profiles customs of 18th century European social life, dies at age 73

1759 Event - French beat European Allies in Battle of Bergen

1725 Birthday - Giacomo Casanova, writer, author, adventurer, book, 'Histoire de ma vie', or, 'History of My Life', profiles customs of 18th century European social life

1714 Birthday - Rainieri De Calzabigi, Italian's literary, 1st European Lottery

1652 Event - Cape Colony, the 1st European settlement in South Africa, established

1644 Event - 1st European peace congress opens in Munster

1642 Event - Abel Tasman is 1st European in New Zealand

1638 Event - Jonas Bronck of Holland becomes 1st European settler in Bronx

1573 Event - 1st European, Francis Drake sees the Pacific (from Panama)

1540 Event - Hernando de Soto crosses Appalachian Mountain, 1st European to do so

1518 Event - English cardinal Thomas Wolsey makes European plan

1513 Event - Vasco Nunez de Balboa is 1st European to see Pacific Ocean

1146 Event - European leaders outlaw crossbow intending to ending war for all time