1923 in History
January 1 Union of Socialist Soviet Republics established
January 4 1st broadcast of "Barn Dance Show" (WBAP - Ft. Worth Texas)
January 4 Lenin's "Political Testament" calls for removal of Stalin
January 7 Baltimore Sun warns of Ku Klux Klan
January 8 Typography strike in Amsterdam
January 9 1st flight of autogiro by Juan de la Cierva, Madrid, Spain
January 10 Last U.S. troops leave Rhineland (Germany)
January 10 Lithuania seizes and annexes country of Memel
January 11 1st Dutch Dada-evening (Theo Van Doesburg and Kurt Schwitters)
January 11 French and Belgian troops occupy Ruhr to collect reparations
January 17 Belgian Working people Party protest against occupied Ruhrgebied
January 17 Origin of Brown lunation numbers
January 18 1st radio telegraph message from Netherlands to Dutch East Indies
January 19 WMC-AM in Memphis Tennessee begins radio transmissions
January 23 Taxi strike in Amsterdam begins (through March 9th)
January 24 Aztec Ruins National Monument, New Mexico established
January 28 1st "Reichs Party" (NSDAP) forms in Munich
January 28 Demonstration against a Dutch University in Ghent
January 28 NSDAP 1st election in Munich
February 1 Allied ultimatum on Lithuanian occupation of Memel
February 1 Fascists Voluntary Militia forms in Italy under Mussolini
February 1 Noel Coward's "Young Idea," premieres in London
February 2 Ethyl gasoline 1st marketed, Dayton, Ohio
February 2 United States signs friendship treaty with Central American countries
February 5 General mine strike against wage cuts in Saar
February 5 Mass arrests of socialists and communists in Italy
February 8 Coal mine explosion at Dawson, New Mexico kills 120
February 8 German NSDAP Volkischer Beobachter newspaper becomes a daily
February 9 Soviet Aeroflot airlines forms
February 10 Ink paste manufactured for 1st time by Standard Ink Company
February 10 Owen Davis' "Icebound," premieres in New York City
February 10 SDAP speaks out against allied occupation of Ruhrgebied
February 13 1st Black pro Basketball team, "Renaissance," organizes
February 16 Allies accept Latvia's occupation of Memel territory
February 16 U.S. Female Figure Skating championship won by Theresa Weld Blanchard
February 16 U.S. Male Figure Skating championship won by Sherwin Badger
February 17 British egyptologist Howard Carter finds sarcophagus of Tutankhamun
February 17 Ottawa Senator Cy Denneny becomes NHL's all time scorer (143 goals)
February 18 Belgium: Borinage-mine workers strike for higher wages
February 19 Jean Sibelius' 6th Symphony, premieres
February 19 Philip Barry's "You and I," premieres in New York City
February 20 Christy Mathewson becomes President of Boston Braves
February 21 Andre Charlot's musical "Rats," premieres in London
February 22 1st successful chinchilla farm in U.S. (Los Angeles California)
February 22 Transcontinental airmail service begins
February 23 German Republic day with laws against worker
February 23 Great Britain lowers import duty on German products from 26% to 5%
February 24 Flying Scotsman goes into service
February 24 Mass arrests in U.S. of mafia
February 25 Bread in Berlin rises to 2,000 mark
February 26 Italian nationalist and fascists merge (blue-shirts and black-shirts)
February 28 Swedish king Gustaaf V begins state visit to Netherlands
March 1 Allies occupy Ruhrgebied: killing railroad striker
March 2 Time magazine debuts
March 3 U.S. Senate rejects membership in International Court of Justice, The Hague
March 4 Lenin's last article in Pravda (about Red bureaucracy)
March 5 1st old age pension plans in U.S. established by Montana and Nevada
March 6 Cards announce their players will wear numbers on their uniforms
March 9 Amsterdam taxi strike ended
March 9 Elmer Rice's "Adding Machine," premieres in New York City
March 9 NHL Championship: Mont Canadiens outscore Ottawa Senators, 3-2, in 2
March 13 Lee de Forest demonstrates his sound-on-film moving pictures (New York City)
March 14 Allies accepts Vilnus taking East-Galicie in Poland
March 14 German Supreme Court prohibits NSDAP
March 14 President Warren G. Harding becomes 1st President to pay taxes
March 15 Lenin is hit with his 3rd stroke
March 16 Hugo von Hofmannsthal's "Der Unbestechliche," premieres in Vienna
March 20 Bavarian minister of Interior refuses to forbid Nazi SA
March 20 Belgian Senate rejects Dutch University in Ghent
March 21 U.S. foreign minister Charles Hughes refuses U.S.S.R. recognition
March 23 Frank Silver and Irving Conn release "Yes, We Have No Bananas"
March 25 British government grants Trans-Jordan autonomy
March 26 Stanley Cup: Ott Senators beat Vanc Millionaires (PCHA), 3 games to 1
March 30 Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, formed at Howard U in 1920, incorporates
March 31 1st dance marathon-NYC-Alma Cummings sets record of 27 hours
March 31 French soldiers fire on workers at Krupp factory in Essen; 13 die
March 31 Stanley Cup: Ottawa Senators (NHL) sweep Edm Eskimos (WCHL) in 2 games
April 3 2 "Black Sox" sue White Sox (unsuccessfully) for back salary
April 5 Firestone puts their inflatable tires into production
April 7 1st brain tumor operation under local anesthetic performed (Beth Israel Hospital in New York City) by Dr. K Winfield Ney
April 7 Workers Party of America (New York City) becomes official Communist Party
April 9 Sean O'Casey's "Shadow of a Gunman," premieres in Dublin
April 10 Hitler demands "hatred and more hatred" in Berlin
April 13 Army wins 1st college three-weapon fencing championships
April 14 Etienne Oehmichen sets helicopter distance record of 358 meters
April 15 1st sound on film public performance shown at Rialto Theater (New York City)
April 15 Insulin becomes generally available for diabetics
April 17 Longest NL opening game, Phillies and Dodgers tie 5-5 in 14
April 18 74,000 (62,281 paid) on hand for opening of Yankee Stadium
April 18 Poland annexes Central Lithuania
April 19 27th Boston Marathon won by Clarence DeMar of Mass in 2:23:37.4
April 19 New Egyptian law allows suffrage for men, except soldiers
April 24 Colonel Jacob Schick patents Schick shavers
April 24 General harbor strike begins in New York City
April 26 English prince Albert (George VI) marries lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
April 27 Mussolini government italian place in South Tirol/Alto Adige
April 28 Wembley Stadium opens-Bolton Wanderers vs West Ham United (FA Cup)
May 2 Senator Walter Johnson pitches his 100th shutout, beats Yankees 3-0
May 3 1st nonstop transcontinental flight (New York - San Diego) completed
May 4 Bloody street battles between Nazi's, socialist and police in Vienna
May 4 New York state revokes Prohibition law
May 7 Mine strike at Belgian Borinage railroad
May 8 Hobbs scores his 100th 100, 116* vs. Somerset at Bath
May 11 10 home runs hit in Phillies 20-14 victory over St. Louis Cardinals
May 12 49th Preakness: Benny Marinelli aboard Vigil wins in 1:53.6
May 13 Pulitzer prize awarded to Willa Carter (One of Ours)
May 15 Cooperation of Dutch Molen forms
May 17 Fire during closing day ceremonies at Grover Cleveland School (SC)
May 19 49th Kentucky Derby: Earl Sande aboard Zev wins in 2:05.4
May 19 KPD (communist revolts) in German Ruhr cities occupied by Allies
May 20 Stanley Baldwin, becomes Prime Minister of UK
May 22 Stanley Baldwin succeeds Andrew Bonar Law as British premier
May 23 1st flight of Sabena: Brussel-Lympne, Great Britain
May 25 Britain recognizes Transjordan with Abdullah as its leader
May 26 1st Le Mans Grand Prix d'Endurance is run
May 26 Socialist Workers Youth International forms in Hamburg
May 28 Attorney General says it is legal for women to wear trousers anywhere
May 28 U.S. unemployment has nearly ended
May 30 Howard Hanson's 1st Symphony "Nordic," premieres
May 31 China and U.S.S.R. exchange diplomats
June 1 New York Giants beat Phillies, 22-5, Giants score in every inning
June 9 55th Belmont: Earl Sande aboard Zev wins in 2:19
June 9 Brinks unveils 1st armored security vans
June 9 Bulgarian premier Stamboeliski and King Boris III overthrown
June 12 Harry Houdini frees himself from a straight jacket while suspended upside down, 40 feet (12 m) above ground in New York City
June 14 Recording of 1st country music hit (Little Old Log Cabin in the Lane)
June 15 Belgium's Theunis government falls because of mine, post and railroad strike
June 16 Sun Yat Sen founds military academy
June 19 Baldwin-Mellon-agreement concerning Britain entering the war
June 19 "Moon Mullins," Comic Strip, debuts
June 21 Marcus Garvey sentenced to 5 years for using mail to defraud
June 24 Pope Pius XI speaks against allies occupying Ruhrgebied
June 28 Dodgers lost 7-0 lead, as Phillies score 8 in bottom of 9th
June 28 Queen Wilhelmina and Prince Henry for state visit to London
June 30 New Zealand claims Ross Dependency in Antarctica
July 1 1st permanent radio network-AT&T (WEAF New York and WMAF Mass)
July 3 Harbor strike in Hull/Grimsby/Cardiff/Bristol over to London
July 4 Jack Dempsey beats Tommy Gibbon in 15 for heavyweight boxing title
July 6 36th Wimbledon Womens Tennis: Suzanne Lenglen beats K McKane (62 62)
July 6 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics form
July 7 43rd Wimbledon Mens Tennis: William Johnston beats F Hunter (60 63 61)
July 7 Cleveland Indians beat Boston Red Sox 27-3 with 13 runs in 6th inning
July 7 University of Delaware invents "junior year abroad" (at Sorbonne)
July 8 Harding becomes 1st sitting president to visit Alaska (Metlakahtla)
July 8 Walter Mittelholzer flies Junkers F-13 to Spitsbergen/Oostland
July 10 2-pound hailstones kill 23 and many cattle, Rostov, Russia
July 10 All non-fascist parties dissolved in Italy
July 11 Harry Frazee, sells Red Sox to Ohio businessmen for $1M
July 13 Draft law passes
July 15 27th U.S. Golf Open: Bobby Jones shoots a 296 at Inwood CC in New York
July 15 Italian parliament accepts new constitution
July 17 Carl Mays gave up 13 runs and 20 hits in 13-0 lose to Indians
July 18 England's House of Lords accepts new divorce law
July 19 WRC-AM in Washington D.C. begins radio transmissions
July 20 Yankees hit into a triple-play but beat A's 9-2
July 21 Phillies score 12 in 6th and beat Cubs 17-4
July 22 Walter Johnson becomes 1st to strikeout 3,000 (en route to 3,508)
July 24 Allied Powers and Turkey sign peace treaty, Lausanne
July 25 German mark devalued to 600,000 Dmark=$1
July 29 Albert Einstein speaks on pacifism in Berlin
July 29 KPD holds struggle day against fascism, in Germany
July 30 New Zealand claims Ross Dependency
July 31 Belgian Chamber discusses bilinguality at Ghent University
August 3 Baseball games cancelled following the death of President Harding
August 3 V.P. Calvin Coolidge becomes 30th president
August 5 1st American to swim English Channel, Henry Sullivan
August 9 New York State Golf Association formed
August 11 Dutch Premier de Geer resigns
August 12 Dutch AR-leader Coair replaces De Geer as minister of finances
August 12 Enrico Tiraboschi is 1st to swim English Channel westward
August 13 Germany: Gustav Stresemann becomes premier of coalition government
August 13 Turkish National Congress selects Moestafa Kemal Pasja as president
August 13 U.S. Steel Corp initiates 8th-hour work day
August 15 Eamon de Valera arrested in Irish Free State
August 15 Mexico and U.S. reaches accord over oil concession of 1917
August 18 37th U.S. Womens Tennis: Helen Wills Moody beats Molla B Mallory (62 61)
August 20 London harbor strike ends
August 22 Paavo Nurmi runs world record mile (4:10.4)
August 24 Paavo Nurmi runs world record 3 mile (14:11.2)
August 31 League of Nations gives Belgium mandate of Ruanda-Urundi (was German)
August 31 Mussolini's troops occupy Korfu
September 1 18th Davis Cup: USA beats Australia in New York (4-1)
September 1 7.9 earthquake strikes Tokyo and Yokohama, kills 142,000
September 1 U.S. beats Australia in tennis, for their 4th straight Davis Cup
September 3 Dorothys Donelly's "Poppy," premieres in New York City
September 4 A Charlot and N Cowards revue "London Calling," premieres in London
September 4 New York Yankee Sad Sam Jones no-hits Philadelphia A's, 2-0
September 5 Flyweights Gene LaRue and Kid Pancho KO each other simultaneously
September 6 Queen Wilhelmina celebrates 25 year jubilee
September 7 Boston Red Sox Howard Ehmke no-hits Philadelphia A's, 4-0
September 7 Interpol forms in Vienna
September 7 Mary Katherine Campbell (Ohio), 16, crowned 2nd Miss America 1922-23
September 9 Albin Stenroos runs world record 20 km (1:07:11.2)
September 10 Irish Free state joins League of Nations
September 11 After a single, Red Sox Howard Ehmke retires next 27 Yankees
September 11 Bernie Neis, hits the 1,000th Dodger home run
September 11 ZR-1 (biggest active dirigible) flies over New York's tallest skyscraper, Woolworth Tower
September 12 Britain takes over Southern Rhodesia from British South Africa Co
September 13 With Spain's king Alfonso XIII assist, army coup under de Rivera
September 14 Jack Dempsey KOs Luis Firpo in 2 for heavyweight boxing title
September 14 Miguel Primo de Rivera becomes dictator of Spain
September 14 Red Sox 1st baseman George Burns pulls off an unassisted triple play
September 15 43rd U.S. Mens Tennis: William T Tilden beats W M Johnston (64 61 64)
September 15 Bill Tilden wins U.S. Lawn Tennis Open
September 17 Sutton Vane's "Outward Bound," premieres in London
September 19 Ernst Tollers "Hinkemann," premieres in Leipzig
September 23 80,000 demonstrate in Amsterdam against Fleet law
September 24 Premiere of 1st celluloid film "Das Leben auf dem Dorfe" (Berlin)
September 26 Stresemann Government ends resistance against occupiers in Ruhrgebied
September 27 Italian troops leave occupied Korfu
September 27 New York Yankee Lou Gehrig hits 1st of his 493 home runs
September 28 Abyssinia (Ethiopia) leaves League of Nations
September 28 Radio Times 1st published
September 28 Yankees slaughter Red Sox 24-4
September 29 6th PGA Championship: Gene Sarazen at Pelham CC Pelham NY
September 29 Steinhart Aquarium in Golden Gate Park opens to public
September 30 Canton Bulldogs win 1st on way to 17-0 season
October 2 British occuping army leaves Constantinople
October 2 Harry Heilmann goes 2-for-2, sit out rest of season, except for a pinch single on final day, hitting .403
October 3 Germany's Stresemann resigns
October 4 Young Stribling held light-heavyweight boxing championship for shortest amount of time (3 hours). Referee overturns decision
October 5 Edwin Hubble identifies Cepheid variable star
October 6 1st NL unassisted triple play (Ernie Padgett, Braves against Phillies)
October 6 2nd government of Stresemann in Germany forms
October 6 U.S. lt Al Williams fly 392.2 KPH (record)
October 6 U.S.S.R. adopts experimental calendar
October 7 Yankees Everett Scott runs his consecutive-game streak to 1,138
October 10 New York Giants and New York Yankees become 1st teams to play each other for 3 consecutive World Series, also 1st played at Yankee Stadium
October 10 Saxony gets Social Democratic and Communist coalition government
October 11 Babe Ruth hits 2 home runs in a World Series game
October 12 New York Giant's Casey Stengel home run beats Yankees 1-0 in World Series
October 13 Angora (Ankara) becomes Turkey's capital
October 15 New York Yankees 1st World Series win beating New York Giants, 4 games to 2
October 16 Disney company founded
October 16 John Harwood patents self-winding watch (Switzerland)
October 17 Catholic University of Nijmegen Netherlands opens
October 19 Ban Johnson persuades AL owners to prohibit boxing in their parks
October 19 Beierse government refuses to prohibit NSDAP newspaper Volkischer Beobachter
October 21 1st planetarium opens at Deutsche Museum in Munich
October 23 Babe Ruth makes a postseason exhibition appearance in a Giants uniform
October 23 Giants defeat Baltimore Orioles 9-0 to benefit former Giants owner John Day
October 24 General Otto von Lossow calls Reichswehr to Berlin to form a dictatorship
October 25 Senate committee publishes 1st report on Teapot Dome scandal
October 26 Dutch 2nd Chamber rejects Fleet laws (50-49 vote)
October 26 Govt-Ruijs de Beerenbrouck resigns
October 29 Army move SPD/KPD-government to German part of Saxon
October 29 Gibbs/Grey/Wood's revue "Runnin' Wild," premieres in New York City
October 29 "Runnin' Wild" (introducing Charleston) opens on Broadway
October 29 Textile strike in Enschede, Netherlands, against lower wages, begins
October 29 Turkey declares independence (successor state to Ottoman Empire)
November 1 Bruno E. Lucander forms Aero E/Y (Finnair)
November 2 Bloody street battles in Aken: pro-French separatists
November 2 Bloody street fights in Aken (pro-French separatists driven)
November 2 Stresemann's SPD-ministers in Germany, step down
November 6 Col Jacob Schick patents 1st electric shaver
November 6 U.S.S.R. adopts experimental calendar, with 5-day "weeks"
November 8 Hitler stages unsuccessful "Beer Hall Putsch" in Munchen (Munich)
November 9 Beer Hall Putsch-Nazis fail to overthrow government, 16 die/Hitler flees
November 10 German ex-crown prince flees Netherlands for Germany
November 11 Eternal flame lit for tomb of unknown solder, Arc de Triumph
November 12 In Germany, Adolf Hitler is arrested for attempt to sieze power
November 19 Bela Bartok's "Tancsuite," premieres
November 20 Garrett Morgan invents and patents traffic signal
November 22 Coolidge pardons WW I German spy Lothar Witzke, sentenced to death
November 23 German army commander General Von Seeckt bans NSDAP and KPD
November 23 Germany's Stresemann government falls to SPD
November 24 Radio Belgium's 1st transmission
November 30 Dutch Catholic minority government of Wilhelm Marx forms
December 1 CFL Grey Cup: Queen's U beats Regina, 54-0 at Toronto
December 3 1st Congressional open session broadcast via radio (Washington D.C.)
December 4 Cecil B DeMille's 1st version of "Ten Commandments" premieres
December 4 WEAF radio begins broadcasting Eveready Hour (variety show)
December 8 German - U.S friendship treaty signed
December 8 Labour/Liberals win British parliament
December 8 Salary and price freeze in Germany
December 10 Polish government of Grabski, forms
December 14 Gerard K "Simon" van het Reve, Dutch writer (Evenings)
December 17 Greek king George II overthrown by army/republic
December 18 International zone of Tangier set up in Morocco
December 21 Nepal changes from British protectorate to independent nation
December 22 Bill Ponsford and Edgar Mayne make 456 opening stand for Vict
December 23 Yankees pitcher Carl Mays sold to Reds for $85,000
December 25 Imperial Theater opens at 249 W 45th St. New York City
December 27 Unsuccessful attempt on prince-regent Hirohito of Japan
December 28 George Bernard Shaw's "St. Joan," premieres in New York City
December 31 1st transatlantic radio broadcast of a voice, Pittsburgh-Manchester
December 31 BBC begins using Big Ben chime ID
December 31 H Tierney/J McCarthy's musical "Kid Boots," premieres in New York City